2018年 05月 15日

論文中常用的轉折、連接詞跟片語

英文論文中常見的轉折用法

轉折詞的功能?

轉折是一個主題換到另一個主題之間的轉變,可以藉由轉折詞或短語來表現。 轉折部分時常放在句首、獨立子句和段落裡,因此為不同的主題和想法之間建立連結。轉折也是用來建立論文的「脈絡」,並使各部分有邏輯地相互連接,進而讓清楚易懂。

轉折用法的分類

我們可以將所有的轉折用法分成四類:

  • Additive transitions 提醒讀者你要新增或參照其他資訊
  • Adversative transitions 指出資訊之間的衝突或不一致
  • Causal transitions 指出後果和因果關係
  • Sequential transitions 澄清順序和資訊的序列和論文的整體架構

Additive Transitions

這一類的轉折皆表示在句子和段落之間有新資訊加入,功能包含介紹或強調資訊、參照先前提到的資訊、加上新的狀況或指名某一部分的資訊是相當重要的。

目的常用用法常用句範例
新增資訊Also; Additionally; Furthermore; MoreoverIn addition to; As well as; In fact; Not only…but also; As a matter of factFurthermore, the data shows that X is a significant factor.”“In addition to the above-mentioned study, Rogers also presents…”
介紹/強調Particularly; Notably; EspeciallyFor example/instance; To illustrate; In particular; One example (of this is)Notably, only two species of this fish survive.”“One example of this phenomenon is X.”
參照Considering (this); Concerning (this); Regarding (this)As for (this); The fact that; With regards to (this); On the subject of (this); Looking at (this information)Considering the amount of research in this area, little evidence has been found.”“With regards to the Blue Whale, its teeth are also the largest of any mammal.”
展現相似性Similarly; Likewise; EquallyBy the same token; In the same way; In a similar wayLikewise, the algorithm was applied to Y.”“By the same token, this principle can be applied to Z.”
澄清/辨識重要資訊Specifically; NamelyThat is (to say); In other words; (To) put (it) another way; What this means is; This means (that)“There are two factors: namely, X and Y.”“In other words, the fall of the Empire was caused by over-expansion.”

Adversative Transitions

這些用法用來區分事實、論點和其他資訊,可利用比對以展現相異處或提供反對論點、質疑某個事實或論點的重要性或替換並提供其他替換。

目的常用用法常用句範例
比對/ 展現相異點But; Still; However; While; Whereas; Conversely; (and) yetIn contrast; On the contrary; On the other hand; …when in fact; By way of contrastHowever, there is still more research needed.”“On the other hand, the 1997 study does not recognize these outcomes.”
辨別 / 強調Indeed; Besides; Significantly; PrimarilyEven more; Above all; More/Most importantlyIndeed, a placebo is essential to any pharmaceutical study.”“Most importantly, the X enzyme increased.”
承認一個論點Nevertheless; Nonetheless; Although; Despite (this); However; Regardless (of this); AdmittedlyEven so; Even though; In spite of (this); Notwithstanding (this); Be that as it mayNevertheless, X is still an important factor.”“In spite of this fact, New York still has a high standard of living.”“Although this may be true, there are still other factors to consider.”
弱化論點或假說Regardless (of)Either way; In any case; In any event; Whatever happens; All the same; At any rateRegardless of the result, this fact is true.”“Either way, the effect is the same.”“In any event, this will not change the public’s view.”
替換 / 指出一個替換方法Instead (of); (or) rather;(or) at leastInstead of using X, the scientists used Z.”“Or rather, why not implement a brand new policy?”

Causal Transitions

以下這些轉折指出原因、條件、目的、前提和因果關係,通常出現於論文中的一個重要觀點被建立之後或為了討論假設性的關係或情況。

目的常用用法常用句範例
表示一個起因或原因Since; For; As; Because (of the fact that)Due to (the fact that); For the reason that; Owing to (the fact); Inasmuch asSince the original sample group was too small, researchers called for more participants.”“Due to budgetary demands, funding will be cut in half.”
解釋條件If…then; Unless; Granting (that); Granted (that); Provided (that)In the event that; As/So long as; Only ifUnless these conditions change, more will need to be done.”“As long as there is oxygen, there will be oxygenation.”
展現效果/結果Consequently; Therefore; Thus; Accordingly; Because (of this)As a result (of this); For this reason; As a consequence; So much (so) thatTherefore, we can conclude that this was an asymmetric catalysis.”“As a consequence, many consumers began to demand safer products.”
展現目的 For the purpose(s) of; With (this fact) in mind; In the hope that; In order that/to; So as toFor the purpose of following standards, X rule was observed.”“With the current state of pandas in mind, this study focused on preservation.”
強調前提的重要性OtherwiseUnder those circumstances; That being the case; In that case; If so; All else being equalOtherwise, this effect will continue into the future.”“All else being equal, the economic impact of this law seems positive.”

Sequential Transitions

這些轉折將論文按照連續性或動作順序組織架構,像是以參照先前提到的資訊、以標示出額外插入的信息和以總結論文的方式。一連串的轉折是建構架構的必經過程,幫助讀者理解整個過程。

目的常用用法常用句範例
以順序做組織Initially; Secondly; Thirdly; (First/Second/Third); LastFirst of all; To start with; In the (first/second/third) placeInitially, subjects were asked to write their names.”“First of all, dolphins are the smartest creatures in the sea.”
展現延續性Subsequently; Previously; Afterwards; Eventually; Next; After (this) Subsequently, subjects were taken to their rooms.”“Afterwards, they were asked about their experiences.”
總結/重複資訊(Once) again; Summarizing (this)To repeat; As (was) stated before; As (was) mentioned earlier/aboveSummarizing this data, it becomes evident that there is a pattern.”“As mentioned earlier, pollution has become an increasing problem.”
暫時切換/再回歸主題Incidentally; Coincidentally; AnywayBy the way; to resume; Returning to the subject; At any rateCoincidentally, the methods used in the two studies were similar.”“Returning to the subject, this section will analyze the results.”
歸結 / 總結Thus; Hence; Ultimately; Finally; Therefore; Altogether; Overall; ConsequentlyTo conclude; As a final point; In conclusion; Given these points; In summary; To sum upUltimately, these results will be valuable to the study of X.”“In conclusion, there are three things to keep in mind—A, B, and C.”

如何挑選正確的轉折用法

轉折用法是寫作中相當普遍的用法,但也應為很好用所以容易被誤用或濫用,導致寫作品質不佳。以下提供一些技巧幫助你挑選出最適當的轉折用法:

  • Check for overused, awkward, or absent transitions when you are reading through and/or editing your paper. Don’t spend too much time trying to find the “perfect” transition while writing the paper.
  • When you a place where a transition could connect ideas, establish relationships, and make it easier for the reader to understand your point, use the list to find a suitable transition term or phrase.
  • Similarly, if you have repeat some terms again and again, find a substitute transition from the list and use that instead. This will help vary your writing and enhance communication of ideas.
  • Read the beginning of each paragraph. Did you include a transition? If not, look at the information in that paragraph and of the preceding paragraph and ask yourself: “How does this information connect?” Then locate the best transition from the list.
  • Check the structure of your paper—are your ideas clearly laid out in order? You should be able to locate sequence terms such as “first,” “second,” “following this,” “another,” “in addition,” “finally,” “in conclusion,” etc. These terms will help outline your paper for the reader.

想了解更多的論文寫作與投稿資訊,歡迎參考霍華斯的學術論文部落格,也歡迎訂閱我們的YouTube頻道,接收第一手消息哦。

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