- Additive transitions 提醒讀者你要新增或參照其他資訊
- Adversative transitions 指出資訊之間的衝突或不一致
- Causal transitions 指出後果和因果關係
- Sequential transitions 澄清順序和資訊的序列和論文的整體架構
|新增資訊||Also; Additionally; Furthermore; Moreover||In addition to; As well as; In fact; Not only…but also; As a matter of fact||“Furthermore, the data shows that X is a significant factor.”“In addition to the above-mentioned study, Rogers also presents…”|
|介紹/強調||Particularly; Notably; Especially||For example/instance; To illustrate; In particular; One example (of this is)||“Notably, only two species of this fish survive.”“One example of this phenomenon is X.”|
|參照||Considering (this); Concerning (this); Regarding (this)||As for (this); The fact that; With regards to (this); On the subject of (this); Looking at (this information)||“Considering the amount of research in this area, little evidence has been found.”“With regards to the Blue Whale, its teeth are also the largest of any mammal.”|
|展現相似性||Similarly; Likewise; Equally||By the same token; In the same way; In a similar way||“Likewise, the algorithm was applied to Y.”“By the same token, this principle can be applied to Z.”|
|澄清/辨識重要資訊||Specifically; Namely||That is (to say); In other words; (To) put (it) another way; What this means is; This means (that)||“There are two factors: namely, X and Y.”“In other words, the fall of the Empire was caused by over-expansion.”|
|比對/ 展現相異點||But; Still; However; While; Whereas; Conversely; (and) yet||In contrast; On the contrary; On the other hand; …when in fact; By way of contrast||“However, there is still more research needed.”“On the other hand, the 1997 study does not recognize these outcomes.”|
|辨別 / 強調||Indeed; Besides; Significantly; Primarily||Even more; Above all; More/Most importantly||“Indeed, a placebo is essential to any pharmaceutical study.”“Most importantly, the X enzyme increased.”|
|承認一個論點||Nevertheless; Nonetheless; Although; Despite (this); However; Regardless (of this); Admittedly||Even so; Even though; In spite of (this); Notwithstanding (this); Be that as it may||“Nevertheless, X is still an important factor.”“In spite of this fact, New York still has a high standard of living.”“Although this may be true, there are still other factors to consider.”|
|弱化論點或假說||Regardless (of)||Either way; In any case; In any event; Whatever happens; All the same; At any rate||“Regardless of the result, this fact is true.”“Either way, the effect is the same.”“In any event, this will not change the public’s view.”|
|替換 / 指出一個替換方法||Instead (of); (or) rather;||(or) at least||“Instead of using X, the scientists used Z.”“Or rather, why not implement a brand new policy?”|
|表示一個起因或原因||Since; For; As; Because (of the fact that)||Due to (the fact that); For the reason that; Owing to (the fact); Inasmuch as||“Since the original sample group was too small, researchers called for more participants.”“Due to budgetary demands, funding will be cut in half.”|
|解釋條件||If…then; Unless; Granting (that); Granted (that); Provided (that)||In the event that; As/So long as; Only if||“Unless these conditions change, more will need to be done.”“As long as there is oxygen, there will be oxygenation.”|
|展現效果/結果||Consequently; Therefore; Thus; Accordingly; Because (of this)||As a result (of this); For this reason; As a consequence; So much (so) that||“Therefore, we can conclude that this was an asymmetric catalysis.”“As a consequence, many consumers began to demand safer products.”|
|展現目的||For the purpose(s) of; With (this fact) in mind; In the hope that; In order that/to; So as to||“For the purpose of following standards, X rule was observed.”“With the current state of pandas in mind, this study focused on preservation.”|
|強調前提的重要性||Otherwise||Under those circumstances; That being the case; In that case; If so; All else being equal||“Otherwise, this effect will continue into the future.”“All else being equal, the economic impact of this law seems positive.”|
|以順序做組織||Initially; Secondly; Thirdly; (First/Second/Third); Last||First of all; To start with; In the (first/second/third) place||“Initially, subjects were asked to write their names.”“First of all, dolphins are the smartest creatures in the sea.”|
|展現延續性||Subsequently; Previously; Afterwards; Eventually; Next; After (this)||“Subsequently, subjects were taken to their rooms.”“Afterwards, they were asked about their experiences.”|
|總結/重複資訊||(Once) again; Summarizing (this)||To repeat; As (was) stated before; As (was) mentioned earlier/above||“Summarizing this data, it becomes evident that there is a pattern.”“As mentioned earlier, pollution has become an increasing problem.”|
|暫時切換/再回歸主題||Incidentally; Coincidentally; Anyway||By the way; to resume; Returning to the subject; At any rate||“Coincidentally, the methods used in the two studies were similar.”“Returning to the subject, this section will analyze the results.”|
|歸結 / 總結||Thus; Hence; Ultimately; Finally; Therefore; Altogether; Overall; Consequently||To conclude; As a final point; In conclusion; Given these points; In summary; To sum up||“Ultimately, these results will be valuable to the study of X.”“In conclusion, there are three things to keep in mind—A, B, and C.”|
- Check for overused, awkward, or absent transitions when you are reading through and/or editing your paper. Don’t spend too much time trying to find the “perfect” transition while writing the paper.
- When you a place where a transition could connect ideas, establish relationships, and make it easier for the reader to understand your point, use the list to find a suitable transition term or phrase.
- Similarly, if you have repeat some terms again and again, find a substitute transition from the list and use that instead. This will help vary your writing and enhance communication of ideas.
- Read the beginning of each paragraph. Did you include a transition? If not, look at the information in that paragraph and of the preceding paragraph and ask yourself: “How does this information connect?” Then locate the best transition from the list.
- Check the structure of your paper—are your ideas clearly laid out in order? You should be able to locate sequence terms such as “first,” “second,” “following this,” “another,” “in addition,” “finally,” “in conclusion,” etc. These terms will help outline your paper for the reader.