2021年 07月 15日

英文寫作容易出錯的20個典型問題

科研人員在掌握了初步的英文寫作技巧后,基本能夠寫出句子結構清晰、語法正確的論文。 但是,對比英文母語語言編輯修改後的文稿,有時仍然感覺英文用詞欠佳或不夠地道流暢。 想要解決這些問題,就必須從高級寫作技巧上系統地總結問題出現的原因和糾正措施。

錯誤1:直翻的中式英文

這類直譯問題造成語句生硬、用詞囉嗦,或者不符合英文表達習慣。
例句1:在台灣,一些教育機構打著顛覆傳統教育的標語從事線上教育。
不自然:In Taiwan, some education enterprises conducted online education with a slogan of overturning traditional education.
較道地:In Taiwan, some education enterprises described their work as overturning traditional education and conducted online education.

例句2:相比於設備甲,我更相信裝置乙。
不自然:I believe  device A  more than  device B.
較道地:I believe  device A  would be more effective than  device B.

例句3:隨著時光流逝,這些企業從市場上消失了。
不自然:These enterprises faded away from the market as time went by.
較道地:Over time, these enterprises faded away from the market.

例句4:從台灣教育部的統計資料可以看出,截止到2016年,中小學網路覆蓋率達到87%。
不自然:We have seen statistics from the Ministry of Education of Taiwan showing that the Internet access rate of elementary and high schools in  China had reached 87% by 2016.
較道地:Statistics from the Ministry of Education of Taiwan have shown that, by 2016, the Internet access rate of elementary and high schools in China had reached 87%.

例句5:看到這些成就,我逐漸堅定了職業方向,希望能為機械工程領域做出貢獻。
不自然:I have observed these achievements, and I have gradually decided my directions of career development in order to make good contributions to the field of mechanical engineering.
較道地:I have observed these achievements, which inspired me to direct my career development to contribute positively to the field of mechanical engineering.

例句6:由於他們片面理解「技術」概念,導致失敗。
不自然:They failed due to their partial understanding of the “technology” concept.
較道地:They failed due to their partial understanding of the role of technology.

例句7:這些技術不論軟硬都是有用的。
錯誤:These technologies, regardless soft or hard, are useful.
正確:These technologies, whether soft or hard, are useful.

錯誤2:語言囉嗦

這類問題造成用詞偏多,篇幅過長。 糾正這類問題時,不僅需要把”inorder to”簡化為”to”,而且需要從用詞結構上予以簡化。 學術寫作應當力求簡潔精鍊。

不自然:This experience was the motivation for me to pursue study in mechanical engineering.
較道地:This experience motivated me to pursue study in mechanical engineering.

不自然:This is an important stage  during the growth of children.
較道地:This is an important stage in children’s growth.

不自然:There are powerful voices to call for  changes in systems engineering.
較道地:P owerful voices are calling for changes in systems engineering.

錯誤3:主詞和受詞的語序顛倒

這類問題的原因是寫法不符合英文表達習慣。
不自然:Changing people’s perception of the nature of systems engineering is the key to the success of making positive changes in system science.
較道地:The key to making positive changes in system science is transforming the perception of the  nature of systems engineering.

錯誤4:對於以”Only”開頭的強調式狀詞,未將動詞反置在主詞前面

這類問題涉及以”Only after”、”Only if”、”Only in this way”等開頭的句子。
錯誤:Only by changing the work condition, it is possible  for them to finish the project.
正確:Only by changing the work condition, is it possible  for them to finish the project.

錯誤5:沒有適時強調否定式

不強調否定:The performance or the durability of the engine has not been changed.
強調否定:Neither the performance nor the durability  of the engine has been changed.

錯誤6:表達原因的寫法不符合英文習慣

不自然:I thought the reason was that I was not fluent in German.
較道地:I thought this was because I was not fluent in German.

不自然:The reason for the engineers to choose this software was that they wanted fast computation.
較道地:The engineers have chosen this software because they wanted fast computation.

錯誤7:沒有前置狀詞片語

經常提倡的所謂狀語後置原則是為了突出主語。 但是,在安排狀詞片語的位置時,不應當犧牲修飾關係清晰性、語意連續性、特意強調性。

修飾關係清晰性不自然:Some education enterprises described their work as overturning traditional education  and conducted online education  in Taiwan.
修飾關係清晰性較道地:In Taiwan, some education enterprises described their work as overturning traditional education and conducted online education.

語意連續性不自然:I received support from my parents when I was young  in learning math.
語意連續性較道地:When I was young, my parents  supported me in learning math.

特意強調性不自然:I studied in Shanghai in mechanical engineering  during my four years of undergraduate study.
特意強調性較道地:D uring my four years of undergraduate study, I studied in Shanghai in mechanical engineering.

錯誤8:未將帶有「with」和動名詞的狀語短語變成動詞從句,不符合英文表達習慣

不自然:His effort will be rewarded with his careful plan and persistent pursuing.
較道地:His effort will be rewarded as he pursues his  careful plan with persistence.

錯誤9:在表達使用措施的”with”、”by”、”using”之間有混淆

不自然:The  gas  temperature was measured with the thermocouple.
較道地:The  gas  temperature was measured  using  the thermocouple.

不自然:The  oxygen  concentration was measured by using  an oxygen sensor.
較道地 :The  oxygen  concentration was measured using  an oxygen sensor.

錯誤10:忽略必須使用的從句及其時態

錯誤:I found that there were numerous tools originated from modern technology.
正確:I found that there were numerous tools that had originated from modern technology.

不自然:There are great differences between the children receiving quality-oriented education and the children receiving exam-oriented education.
較道地:There are great differences between children who receive quality-oriented education and those who receive exam-oriented education.

錯誤11:誤用被動語態,不符合英文表達習慣。

不自然:Some technologies are easy to be mastered and  implemented by these companies.
較道地:Some technologies are easy for these companies to master and implement.

錯誤12:多餘的介系詞

錯誤:The analysis focus was on passing inspection.
正確:The analysis focus was passing inspection.

錯誤:The temperature is at 100 °C.
正確:The temperature is 100 C.°

錯誤13:缺少介系詞

錯誤:The reduction  in thermal  efficiency caused by  friction  can be compensated by  reducing heat transfer losses.
正確:The reduction  in thermal  efficiency caused by  friction  can be compensated for by  reducing heat transfer losses.

錯誤:I  searched  solutions.
正確:I  searched for  solutions.

錯誤14:搭配錯誤的介系詞

錯誤:They developed the product with joint efforts of external teams.
正確:They developed the product in a joint effort with external teams.

錯誤:I was admitted to the Ph.D. program of Chemistry  in  Washington University in 2012.
正確:In 2012, I was admitted to the Ph.D. program in Chemistry  at Washington University.

錯誤:He  providedan  answer for this question.
正確:He  provided  answer to this question.

不自然:The temperature drop  leads  to the reduction  of  thermal  efficiency.
較道地:The temperature drop  leads  to the reduction in  thermal  efficiency.

錯誤15:混淆或缺少不定冠詞”a「或」an「與定冠詞」the」

錯誤:The maximum efficiency was  80%,obtained with  the  inlet  gas velocity  of  12  m/s.
正確:The maximum efficiency was  80%,obtained with an inlet  gas velocity  of  12  m/s.

錯誤16:用錯單數和複數

錯誤:At a temperature above 300 °C, the  thermal  efficiency decreased slightly.
正確:At temperatures  above 300 °C, the  thermal  efficiency decreased slightly.

錯誤17:漏用撇號所有格形式

雖然名詞能夠修飾名詞,但在很多情況下,使用帶撇號的所有格形式能將修飾關係表達得更清晰。
不自然:The measurement point  A  was at the dust collector  inlet.
較道地:The measurement point  A  was at the dust collector’sinlet.

錯誤18:書名未使用斜體,或誤用引號或中文書名號

錯誤:I read  the books of  “Principles of Vibration”  and《Fluid Mechanics》.
正確:I read  Principles of Vibration  and  Fluid Mechanics.

錯誤19:論文或文章的標題未加引號,或誤用斜體

錯誤:I wrote a thesis titled  Engine Performance  Analysis at  High-Altitude  Conditions.
正確:I  wrote a thesis titled “Engine  Performance  Analysis at  High-Altitude  Conditions”.

錯誤20:使用口語化的非正式用詞

非正式用詞正式用詞非正式用詞正式用詞
point outarguehugesignificant
come backreturnvery good atskilled at
so manynumerousthenconsequently
a lot ofmanyparticularlyin particular

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